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115 things to know for exam

Here are 115 concepts you should understand for the AP Test and or the AP Final.

1. Ionizing radiation: enough energy to knock electrons from atoms forming ions, capable of causing cancer (ex gamma-X-rays-UV)

2. High Quality Energy: organized & concentrated, can perform useful work (ex fossil fuel & nuclear)

3. Low Quality Energy: disorganized, dispersed (heat in ocean or air wind, solar)

4. First Law of Thermodynamics: energy is neither created nor destroyed, but may be converted from one form to another

5. Second Law of Thermodynamics: when energy is changed from one form to another, some useful energy is always degraded into lower quality energy (usually heat)

6. Natural radioactive decay: unstable radioisotopes decay releasing gamma rays, alpha & beta particles

7. Half life: the time it takes for ½ the mass of a radioisotope to decay

8. Estimate of how long a radioactive isotope must be stored until it decays to a safe level: approximately 10 half-lives

9. Nuclear Fission: nuclei of isotopes split apart when struck by neutrons

10. Nuclear Fusion: 2 isotopes of light elements (H) forced together at high temperatures till they fuse to form a heavier nucleus, Helium (He). Expensive, break even point not reached yet. Temp needs to be about 100 million degrees

11. Ore: a rock that contains a large enough concentration of a mineral making it profitable to mine

12. Mineral Reserve: identified deposits currently profitable to extract

13. Best solution to Energy shortage: conservation and increase efficiency

14. Surface mining: cheaper & can remove more mineral, less hazardous to workers

15. Humus: organic, dark material remaining after decomposition by microorganisms

16. Leaching: removal of dissolved materials from soil by water moving downwards

17. Illuviation: deposit of leached material in lower soil layers (B)

18. Loam: perfect agricultural soil with equal portions of sand, silt, clay

19. Solutions to soil problems: conservation tillage, crop rotation, contour plowing, organic fertilizers

20. Parts of the hydrologic cycle: evaporation, transpiration, runoff, condensation, precipitation, infiltration

21. Aquifer: any water bearing layer in the ground

22. Cone of depression: lowering of the water table around a pumping well

23. Salt water intrusion: near the coast, over pumping of groundwater causes saltwater to move into the aquifer

24. ENSO: El Nino Southern Oscillation, see-sawing of air pressure over the S. Pacific

25. During an El Nino year: trade winds weaken & warm water sloshed back to S. America
  During a Non El Nino year: Easterly trade winds and ocean currents pool warm water in the western Pacific, allowing upwelling of nutrient rich water off the West coast of South America

26. Effects of El Nino: upwelling decreases disrupting food chains, N US has mild winters, SW US has increased rainfall, less Atlantic Hurricanes, frost in southeast. effects citrus crops

27. Nitrogen fixing: because atmospheric N2 cannot be used directly by plants it must first be converted into ammonia by bacteria

28. Ammonification: decomposers covert organic waste into ammonia

29. Nitrification: ammonia is converted to nitrate ions (NO3 -)

30. Assimilation: inorganic N2 is converted into organic molecules such as DNA/amino acids & proteins

31. Denitrification: bacteria convert ammonia back into N2

32. Phosphorus does not circulate as easily as N because: it does not exist as a gas, but is released by weathering of phosphate rocks

33. Because soils contain very little phosphorus: it is a major limiting factor for plant growth. Plants need very little phosphorous- major contributor to water pollution and lake eutrophication.

34. Excess phosphorus is added to aquatic ecosystems by: runoff of animal wastes, fertilizer discharge of sewage

35. Photosynthesis: plants convert atmospheric C (CO2) into complex carbohydrates (glucose C6H12O6)

36. Aerobic respiration: oxygen consuming producers, consumers & decomposers break down complex organic compounds & convert C back into CO2

37. Largest reservoirs of C: carbonate rocks first, oceans second

38. Biotic/abiotic: living & nonliving components of an ecosystem

39. Producer/Autotroph: photosynthetic life

40. Major trophic levels: producers-primary consumer-secondary consumer-tertiary consumer

41. Energy flow in food webs: less than 10% of the usable energy is transferred

42. Why is only 10% transferred: usable energy lost as heat (2nd law), not all biomass is digested & absorbed, predators expend energy to catch prey

43. Primary succession: development of communities in a lifeless area not previously inhabited by life (lava)

44. Secondary succession:  life progresses where soil remains (clear cut forest)

45. Mutualism: symbiotic relationship where both partners benefit

46. Commensalism: symbiotic relationship where one partner benefits & the other is unaffected

47. Parasitism:   relationship in which one partner obtains nutrients at the expense of the host

48. Biome: large distinct terrestrial region having similar climate, soil, plants & animals

49. Carrying capacity: the number of individuals that can be sustained in an area

50. r strategist: reproduce early, many small unprotected offspring

51. K strategist: reproduce late, few, cared for offspring

52. Natural selection: organisms that possess favorable adaptations pass them onto the next generation

53. Malthus: said human population cannot continue to increase consequences will be war, famine & disease

54. Doubling time: rule of 70 - 70 divided by the percent growth rate

55. Replacement level fertility: the number of children a couple must have to replace themselves (2.1 developed, 2.7 developing)

56. World Population is: over 6 billion

57. Pre-industrial stage: birth & death rates high, population grows slowly, infant mortality high

58. Transitional stage: death rate lower, better health care, population grows fast

59. Industrial stage: decline in birth rate, population growth slows

60. Postindustrial stage: low birth & death rates

61. Age structure diagrams:  (broad base, rapid growth) (narrow base, negative growth) (uniform shape, zero growth)

62. 1st & 2nd most populated countries: China & India (over 1/3 of world population)

63. Most important thing affecting population growth: low status of women

64. Ways to decrease birth rate: family planning, contraception, economic rewards & penalties

65. Percent water on earth by type: 97.5% seawater, 2.5% freshwater.  About 0.6% available for human consumption

66. Salinization of soil: in arid regions, water evaporates leaving salts behind

67. Ways to conserve water: (agriculture, drip/trickle irrigation) (industry, recycling) (home, use gray water, repair leaks, low flow fixtures)

68. Point vs. non point sources: (Point, from specific location such as pipe) (Non-point, from over an area such as runoff)

69. BOD: biological oxygen demand, amount of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic decomposers to break down organic materials

70. Eutrophication: rapid algal growth caused by an excess of N & P

71. Hypoxia: when aquatic plants die, the BOD rises as aerobic decomposers break down the plants, the DO drops & the water cannot support life

72. Minamata Disease: mental impairments caused by mercury. First recognized in Japan

73. Primary air pollutants: produced by humans & nature (CO, CO2, SO2 ,NO, hydrocarbons, particulates)

74. Secondary pollutants: formed by reaction of primary pollutants

75. Particulate matter (source, effect, reduction): (burning fossil fuels & car exhaust) (reduces visibility & respiratory irritation) (filtering, electrostatic precipitators, alternative energy)

76. Nitrogen Oxides: (Source: auto exhaust) (Effects: acidification of lakes, respiratory irritation, leads to smog & ozone) (Equation for acid formation: NO + O2 = NO2 + H2O = HNO3) (Reduction: catalytic converter)

77. Sulfur oxides: (Source: coal burning) (Effects: acid deposition, respiratory irritation, damages plants) (Equation for acid formation: SO2 + O2 = SO3 + H2O = H2SO4) (Reduction: scrubbers, burn low sulfur fuel)

78. Carbon oxides: (Source: auto exhaust, incomplete combustion) (Effects: CO binds to hemoglobin reducing bloods ability to carry O2, CO2 contributes to global warming) (Reduction: catalytic converter, emission testing, oxygenated fuel, mass transit)

79. Ozone: (Formation: secondary pollutant, NO2+UV=NO+O  O+O2=O3, with VOC’s) (Effects: respiratory irritant, plant damage) (Reduction: reduce NOx emissions & VOCs)

80. Industrial smog: found in cities that burn large amounts of coal

81. Photochemical smog: formed by chemical reactions involving sunlight (NOx, VOC, O)

82. Acid deposition: caused by sulfuric and nitric acids resulting in lowered pH of surface waters

83. Greenhouse gases: (Examples: H2O, CO2, O3, methane (CH4), CFC’s) (EFFECT: they trap outgoing infrared (heat)  energy causing earth to warm

84. Effects of global warming: rising sea level (thermal expansion), extreme weather, droughts (famine), extinctions

85. Ozone depletion caused by: CFC’s, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, halon, methyl bromide all of which attack stratospheric ozone

86. Effects of ozone depletion: increased UV, skin cancer, cataracts, decreased plant growth

87. Love Canal, NY: chemicals buried in old canal and school & homes built over it causing birth defects & cancer

88. Municipal solid waste is mostly: paper

89. Most municipal waste is: landfilled

90. Sanitary landfill problems and solutions: (leachate, liner with collection system) (methane gas, collect gas and burn) (volume of garbage, compact & reduce)

91. Incineration advantages: volume of waste reduced by 90% & waste heat can be used

92. Incineration disadvantages: toxic emissions (polyvinyl chloride—dioxin), scrubbers & electrostatic precipitators needed, ash disposal

93. Best way to solve waste problem: reduce the amounts of waste at the source

94. Keystone species: species whose role in an ecosystem are more important than others. Examples: alligators, fig trees, grizzly bears, prairie dogs

95. Indicator species: species that serve as early warnings that an ecosystem is being damaged. Examples: Amphibians and song birds (miners canary)

96. Most endangered species: have a small range, small litters, require large territory or live on an island

97. In natural ecosystems, 50-90% of pest species are kept under control by: predators, diseases, parasites

98. Major insecticide groups and examples: (chlorinated hydrocarbons-  DDT) (organophosphates - malathion) (carbamates-sevin, aldicarb)

99. Pesticide pros: saves lives from insect transmitted disease, increases food supply, increases profits for farmers

100. Pesticide cons: genetic resistance, ecosystem imbalance, pesticide treadmill, persistence, bioaccumulation, biological magnification

101. Natural pest control: better agricultural practices, genetically resistant plants, natural enemies, biopesticides, sex attractants,  Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

102. Electricity is generated by: using steam (from water boiled by fossils fuels or nuclear) or falling water to turn a generator

103. Petroleum forms from: microscopic aquatic organisms in sediments converted by heat & pressure into a mixture of hydrocarbons

104. Pros of petroleum: cheap, easily transported, high quality energy

105. Cons of petroleum: reserves depleted soon, pollution during drilling, transport and refining, burning makes CO2

106. Steps in coal formation: peat, lignite, bituminous, anthracite

107. Major parts of a nuclear reactor: core, control rods, steam generator, turbine, containment building

108. Two most serious nuclear accidents: (Chernobyl, Ukraine) (Three Mile Island, Pa)

109. Alternate energy sources: wind, solar, waves, biomass, geothermal, fuel cells

110. LD50: the amount of a chemical that kills 50% of the animals in a test population

111. Mutagen, Teratogen, Carcinogen: causes hereditary changes, Fetus deformities, cancer

112. Multiple use US public land: National Forest & National Resource lands

113. Moderately restricted use land: National Wildlife Refuges

114. Restricted Use lands: National Parks, National Wilderness Preservation System

115. Volcanoes and Earthquakes occur: at plate boundaries (divergent, spreading, mid-ocean ridges) (convergent, trenches) (transform, sliding, San Andreas)